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Cortex. 2012 Oct;48(9):1234-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2012.02.010. Epub 2012 Mar 7.

Progressive aphasia presenting with deep dyslexia and dysgraphia.

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Cerebral Function Unit, Greater Manchester Neuroscience Centre, Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, UK.


Primary progressive aphasia is clinically heterogeneous. We report a patient, alias Don, with a novel form of progressive aphasia, characterised by deep dyslexia and dysgraphia and dissociated access to phonological and orthographic word forms. The hallmarks of deep dyslexia and dysgraphia were present early in the course and persisted over time. Writing was initially poorer than reading, but this reversed over time. There was a lack of concordance between reading and writing errors. Don benefited from a semantic mediation strategy to learn letter sounds, involving associating letters with a country name (e.g., A=Afghanistan). Remarkably, he continued to be able to generate those phonologically complex country names when no longer able to name or sound letters. Don's performance is compatible with a traditional dual-route account of deep dyslexia and dysgraphia. TheĀ findings have potential practical implications for speech and language therapy in progressive aphasia. Moreover, they illustrate both the remarkable specificity yet clinical diversity in presentation of progressive aphasia.

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