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Arch Biochem Biophys. 2012 Nov 15;527(2):95-104. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2012 Mar 23.

Prevention mechanisms of glucose intolerance and obesity by cacao liquor procyanidin extract in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice.

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Department of Agrobioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan.


In this study, we investigated whether cacao liquor procyanidin (CLPr) extract, which consists of 4.3% catechin, 6.1% epicatechin, 39.4% procyanidins and others, ameliorated hyperglycemia and obesity in C57BL/6 mice fed a control or high-fat diet for 13 weeks. CLPr suppressed high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and fat accumulation in white adipose tissue. CLPr also promoted translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) in the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. Phosphorylation of AMPKα was also enhanced in the liver and white adipose tissue. CLPr up-regulated the gene and protein expression levels of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipose tissue and UCP-3 in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CLPr is a beneficial food material for the prevention of hyperglycemia and obesity. Activation of AMPKα, translocation of GLUT4 and up-regulation of UCP expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue are involved in the molecular mechanisms by which CLPr prevents hyperglycemia and obesity.

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