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Int J Urol. 2012 Aug;19(8):697-708. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2042.2012.03014.x. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

Clinical and imaging overview of functional adrenal neoplasms.

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Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.


Adrenal adenoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma are four discrete adrenal neoplasms that have the potential for functional activity. Functional adrenal neoplasms can secrete cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormones or catecholamines. These heterogeneous groups of tumors show varied biological behavior and clinical outcomes. These neoplasms are encountered with increasing clinical frequency as a result of an expansion in the volume of medical imaging carried out. The clinical presentation, including prognosis and treatment options, and the imaging features of these neoplasms are discussed. The key radiological observations of each of these neoplasms are shown using multimodality images. Familiarity with the clinical and imaging features of these neoplasms improves diagnosis, and facilitates appropriate clinical decision-making and patient management.

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