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J Biomol Screen. 2012 Jul;17(6):761-72. doi: 10.1177/1087057112441013. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

In vitro ADME profiling using high-throughput rapidfire mass spectrometry: cytochrome p450 inhibition and metabolic stability assays.

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New Lead Discovery, Exelixis, Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA.


Early assessment of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of drug candidates has become an essential component of modern drug discovery. ADME characterization is important in identifying compounds early that are likely to fail in later clinical development because of suboptimal pharmacokinetic properties or undesirable drug-drug interactions. Proper utilization of ADME results, meanwhile, can prioritize candidates that are more likely to have good pharmacokinetic properties and also minimize potential drug-drug interactions. By integrating a RapidFire system with an API4000 mass spectrometer (RF-MS), we have established a high-throughput capability to profile compounds (>100 compounds/wk) in a panel of ADME assays in parallel with biochemical and cellular characterizations. Cytochrome P450 inhibition and time-dependent inhibition assays and microsomal stability assays were developed and fully optimized on the system. Compared with the classic liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method, the RF-MS system generates consistent data with approximately 20-fold increase in throughput. The lack of chromatographic separation of compounds, substrates, and metabolites can complicate data interpretation, but this occurs in a small number of cases that are readily identifiable. Overall, this system has enabled a real-time and quantitative measurement of a large number of ADME samples, providing a rapid evaluation of clinically important drug-drug interaction potential and drug metabolic stability.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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