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Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Apr;37(2):334-44. doi: 10.1139/h2012-004. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

The effect of different training programs on antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and metabolic control in type 2 diabetes.

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Institute of Genetics and Biochemistry, Federal University of Uberlandia, Uberlandia, Brazil.


We compared the effects of 12 weeks of 3 different exercise types on type 2 diabetic (T2DM) male and female human subjects, randomly divided into 4 groups: aerobic training (AT; n = 11), strength training (ST; n = 10), combined training (CBT; n = 10), and no training (NT; n = 12). Metabolic control, anthropometric parameters, lipid and hematological profiles, kidney and liver function markers, hormones, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress markers were assessed prior to and after the training programs. At baseline, fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A(1c) in the ST group were higher than in the NT group; after the training, we no longer observed differences in these groups, suggesting an improvement on these parameters. In the AT group, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, nitrite concentration, levels of sulfhydryl groups, and peak rate of oxygen consumption were elevated after the training (p < 0.05). No changes were observed in antioxidant enzymes or oxidative stress markers in the ST group. The levels of sulfhydryl groups diminished in the NT group (p < 0.01) and increased in the CBT group (p < 0.05). These data demonstrate that the AT program for the T2DM subjects provided important upregulation in antioxidant enzymes and increased nitric oxide bioavailability, which may help minimize oxidative stress and the development of the chronic complications of diabetes. We propose that the beneficial effects observed in the metabolic parameters of the ST group occurred in response to the poor baseline metabolic health n this group, and not necessarily in response to the training itself.

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