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J Nutr Health Aging. 2012 Mar;16(3):262-8.

The Alu polymorphism of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) and atherosclerosis, incident chronic diseases and mortality in an elderly Chinese population.

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Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.



We examined the contribution of ACE I/D polymorphism in a large Chinese population to four year change in ankle-brachial index (ABI), development of cardiovascular diseases and mortality in a prospective study adjusting for many confounding factors.


Data are drawn from a longitudinal study of 4000 community-living men and women aged 65 years and over, for which detailed information regarding lifestyle, chronic diseases, body mass index (BMI), ABI measurements and ACE polymorphisms were documented at baseline. During the fifth year of follow up, incident cardiovascular diseases, ABI, and mortality were documented, and related to ACE genotype adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, dietary intake, physical activity, body mass index, and use of ACE inhibitors.


Women with the D/D genotype had the greatest reduction in mean ABI after adjusting for confounding factors. D/D genotype was also more common among women who developed hypertension or myocardial infarction. However D/D genotype was associated with mortality only in men.


In a Chinese elderly population, ACE polymorphism may be considered "deleterious" to longevity, the D/D genotype being associated with mortality, the atherosclerotic process, hypertension and myocardial infarction. There are gender differences in the relationship between D/D genotype and cardiovascular diseases and mortality may not be mediated by the atherosclerotic process alone.

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