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Adv Urol. 2012;2012:419348. doi: 10.1155/2012/419348. Epub 2012 Feb 21.

Preclinical Remodeling of Human Prostate Cancer through the PTEN/AKT Pathway.

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Department of Urology, Kinki University School of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-Higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511, Japan.


Knowledge gained from the identification of genetic and epigenetic alterations that contribute to the progression of prostate cancer in humans is now being implemented in the development of functionally relevant translational models. GEM (genetically modified mouse) models are being developed to incorporate the same molecular defects associated with human prostate cancer. Haploinsufficiency is common in prostate cancer and homozygous loss of PTEN is strongly correlated with advanced disease. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of the PTEN knockout mouse and the cooperation between PTEN and other genetic alterations in tumor development and progression. Additionally, we will outline key points that make these models key players in the development of personalized medicine, as potential tools for target and biomarker development and validation as well as models for drug discovery.

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