Send to

Choose Destination
Sensors (Basel). 2009;9(8):6008-27. doi: 10.3390/s90806008. Epub 2009 Jul 29.

Orientation of airborne laser scanning point clouds with multi-view, multi-scale image blocks.

Author information

Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 1200, FI-02015 TKK, Finland; E-Mails: ;


Comprehensive 3D modeling of our environment requires integration of terrestrial and airborne data, which is collected, preferably, using laser scanning and photogrammetric methods. However, integration of these multi-source data requires accurate relative orientations. In this article, two methods for solving relative orientation problems are presented. The first method includes registration by minimizing the distances between of an airborne laser point cloud and a 3D model. The 3D model was derived from photogrammetric measurements and terrestrial laser scanning points. The first method was used as a reference and for validation. Having completed registration in the object space, the relative orientation between images and laser point cloud is known. The second method utilizes an interactive orientation method between a multi-scale image block and a laser point cloud. The multi-scale image block includes both aerial and terrestrial images. Experiments with the multi-scale image block revealed that the accuracy of a relative orientation increased when more images were included in the block. The orientations of the first and second methods were compared. The comparison showed that correct rotations were the most difficult to detect accurately by using the interactive method. Because the interactive method forces laser scanning data to fit with the images, inaccurate rotations cause corresponding shifts to image positions. However, in a test case, in which the orientation differences included only shifts, the interactive method could solve the relative orientation of an aerial image and airborne laser scanning data repeatedly within a couple of centimeters.


ICP method; interactive orientation; laser scanning; multi-scale; multi-view; photogrammetry; registration

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center