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Adv Mater. 2012 Apr 24;24(16):2069-103. doi: 10.1002/adma.201104826. Epub 2012 Mar 27.

Directional photofluidization lithography: micro/nanostructural evolution by photofluidic motions of azobenzene materials.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, Korea.


This review demonstrates directional photofluidization lithography (DPL), which makes it possible to fabricate a generic and sophisticated micro/nanoarchitecture that would be difficult or impossible to attain with other methods. In particular, DPL differs from many of the existing micro/nanofabrication methods in that the post-treatment (i.e., photofluidization), after the preliminary fabrication process of the original micro/nanostructures, plays a pivotal role in the various micro/nanostructural evolutions including the deterministic reshaping of architectures, the reduction of structural roughness, and the dramatic enhancement of pattern resolution. Also, DPL techniques are directly compatible with a parallel and scalable micro/nanofabrication. Thus, DPL with such extraordinary advantages in micro/nanofabrication could provide compelling opportunities for basic micro/nanoscale science as well as for general technology applications.

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