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Mol Cell Biochem. 2012 Jul;366(1-2):239-49. doi: 10.1007/s11010-012-1301-3. Epub 2012 Mar 27.

The G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor 1 agonist G-1 disrupts endothelial cell microtubule structure in a receptor-independent manner.

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Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, BMC D12, 221 84 Lund, Sweden.


The G protein-coupled oestrogen receptor GPER1, also known as GPR30, has been implicated in oestrogen signalling, but the physiological importance of GPER1 is not fully understood. The GPER1 agonist G-1 has become an important tool to assess GPER1-mediated cellular effects. Here, we report that this substance, besides acting via GPER1, affects the microtubule network in endothelial cells. Treatment with G-1 (3 μM) for 24 h reduced DNA synthesis by about 60 % in mouse microvascular endothelial bEnd.3 cells. Treatment with 3 μM G-1 prevented outgrowth of primary endothelial cells from mouse aortic explants embedded in Matrigel. Treatment with G-1 (0.3-3 μM) for 24 h disrupted bEnd.3 cell and HUVEC microtubule structure in a concentration-dependent manner as assessed by laser-scanning confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. G-1-induced (3 μM) disruption of microtubule was observed also after acute (3 and 6 h) treatment and in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Disruption of microtubules by 3 μM G-1 was observed in aortic smooth muscle cells obtained from both GPER1 knockout and wild-type mice, suggesting that G-1 influences microtubules through a mechanism independent of GPER1. G-1 dose dependently (10-50 μM) stimulated microtubule assembly in vitro. On the other hand, microtubules appeared normal in the presence of 10-50 μM G-1 as determined by electron microscopy. We suggest that G-1-promoted endothelial cell anti-proliferation is due in part to alteration of microtubule organization through a mechanism independent of GPER1. This G-1-promoted mechanism may be used to block unwanted endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis such as that observed in, e.g. cancer.

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