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Sleep Med. 2012 Jun;13(6):570-6. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2011.12.012. Epub 2012 Mar 23.

The longitudinal course and impact of non-restorative sleep: a five-year community-based follow-up study.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There is a dearth of data on the longitudinal course and outcome of non-restorative sleep (NRS).

METHODS:

A total of 2291 middle-aged adults (mean [SD]=46.3 [5.1] years old, 50.0% males at follow-up) were recruited into a 5-year follow-up study. NRS was defined as morning unfreshness after getting up ≥ 3 times/week over the past 12 months. Socio-demographics, other concurrent sleep complaints, and daytime symptoms were measured at baseline. Chronic medical problems in the past one year were additionally assessed at follow up.

RESULTS:

Several sleep problems (including other insomnia subtypes, snoring, and nightmares) and daytime symptoms were strongly associated with NRS at baseline. NRS had considerable persistence (31.9%), partial remission (22.7%), and incidence rate (5.2%). New incidence of NRS was predicted by female gender (AOR=1.67), preferring not to get up in the morning (AOR=1.96), fatigue (AOR=2.18), and short sleep duration (AOR=1.87), whereas persistence of NRS was predicted by difficulty initiating sleep (AOR=2.36). In the fully adjusted models, baseline NRS was significantly associated with multiple medical disorders at follow-up, including frequent allergic rhinitis (AOR=1.62) and laryngopharyngitis (AOR=2.47), diabetes mellitus (AOR=2.63), gastroesophageal reflux disease (AOR=2.03), eye problems (AOR=2.45), eczema (AOR=2.18), and poor mental health (AOR=1.68).

CONCLUSIONS:

The persistent course and independent association of NRS with adverse medical and mental outcomes argue for a distinct nosological status and the need for rigorous medical attention.

PMID:
22445230
DOI:
10.1016/j.sleep.2011.12.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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