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J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Jun;50(6):1852-5. doi: 10.1128/JCM.06440-11. Epub 2012 Mar 21.

Detection of amphotericin B resistance in Candida haemulonii and closely related species by use of the Etest, Vitek-2 yeast susceptibility system, and CLSI and EUCAST broth microdilution methods.

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Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, South Korea.


The emerging fungal pathogens Candida haemulonii and Candida pseudohaemulonii often show high-level resistance to amphotericin B (AMB). We compared the utilities of five antifungal susceptibility testing methods, i.e., the Etest using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with glucose and methylene blue (Etest-MH), the Etest using RPMI agar supplemented with glucose (Etest-RPG), the Vitek-2 yeast susceptibility system, and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) broth microdilution methods, for the detection of AMB-resistant isolates of C. haemulonii and closely related species. Thirty-eight clinical isolates (8 C. haemulonii, 10 C. pseudohaemulonii, and 20 Candida auris isolates) were analyzed. Of the 18 C. haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii isolates, 18, 15, 18, 10, and 9 exhibited AMB MICs of >1 μg/ml by the Etest-MH, Etest-RPG, Vitek-2, CLSI, and EUCAST methods, respectively. All 20 C. auris isolates showed AMB MICs of ≤1 μg/ml by all five methods. Of the methods, the Etest-MH generated the broadest distribution of AMB MICs for all 38 isolates and showed the best discrimination between the C. haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii isolates (4 to 32 μg/ml) and those of C. auris (0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml). Taking the Etest-MH as the reference method, the essential agreements (within two dilutions) for the Etest-RPG, Vitek-2, CLSI, and EUCAST methods were 84, 92, 55, and 55%, respectively; the categorical agreements were 92, 92, 79, and 76%, respectively. This study provides the first data on the efficacy of the Etest-MH and its excellent agreement with Vitek-2 for discriminating AMB-resistant from AMB-susceptible isolates of these Candida species.

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