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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jun;97(6):1953-61. doi: 10.1210/jc.2011-3187. Epub 2012 Mar 22.

Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with increased risk of the development of the metabolic syndrome at five years: results from a national, population-based prospective study (The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study: AusDiab).

Author information

1
Centre hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Centre hospitalier de l'Université Laval, Laval University, 2705 Boulevard Laurier, Québec, Canada G1V 4G2. claudia.gagnon@crchuq.ulaval.ca

Abstract

CONTEXT:

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration has been inversely associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the relationship between 25(OH)D and incident MetS remains unclear.

OBJECTIVE:

We evaluated the prospective association between 25(OH)D, MetS, and its components in a large population-based cohort of adults aged 25 yr or older.

DESIGN:

We used baseline (1999-2000) and 5-yr follow-up data of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab).

PARTICIPANTS:

Of the 11,247 adults evaluated at baseline, 6,537 returned for follow-up. We studied those without MetS at baseline and with complete data (n = 4164; mean age 50 yr; 58% women; 92% Europids).

OUTCOME MEASURES:

We report the associations between baseline 25(OH)D and 5-yr MetS incidence and its components, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, season, latitude, smoking, family history of type 2 diabetes, physical activity, education, kidney function, waist circumference (WC), and baseline MetS components.

RESULTS:

A total of 528 incident cases (12.7%) of MetS developed over 5 yr. Compared with those in the highest quintile of 25(OH)D (≥34 ng/ml), MetS risk was significantly higher in people with 25(OH)D in the first (<18 ng/ml) and second (18-23 ng/ml) quintiles; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.41 (1.02-1.95) and 1.74 (1.28-2.37), respectively. Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with 5-yr WC (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P < 0.01), fasting glucose (P < 0.01), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (P < 0.001) but not with 2-h plasma glucose (P = 0.29), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.70), or blood pressure (P = 0.46).

CONCLUSIONS:

In Australian adults, lower 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with increased MetS risk and higher WC, serum triglyceride, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance at 5 yr. Vitamin D supplementation studies are required to establish whether the link between vitamin D deficiency and MetS is causal.

Comment in

PMID:
22442263
DOI:
10.1210/jc.2011-3187
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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