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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012 Jun;67(6):1354-8. doi: 10.1093/jac/dks079. Epub 2012 Mar 22.

Characterization of β-lactamase and porin mutants of Enterobacteriaceae selected with ceftaroline + avibactam (NXL104).

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Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring & Reference Laboratory, Health Protection Agency Microbiology Services, Colindale, London NW9 5EQ, UK.



Ceftaroline + avibactam (NXL104) is a novel inhibitor combination active against Enterobacteriaceae with class A and C β-lactamases. We investigated its risk of mutational resistance.


Single- and multi-step mutants were sought and characterized from Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases and KPC β-lactamases.


Overgrowth occurred on agar with low MIC multiples of ceftaroline + avibactam, but frequencies for single-step mutants were <10(-9). Most mutants were unstable, with only three remaining resistant on subculture. For one, from an CTX-M-15-positive Escherichia coli, the ceftaroline + avibactam MIC was raised, but the organism had reduced resistance to ceftaroline and lost resistance to other oxyimino-cephalosporins, with this profile retained when the mutant bla(CTX-M-15) was cloned into E. coli DH5α. Sequencing identified a Lys237Gln substitution in the CTX-M-15 variant. The other two stable single-step mutants were from an AmpC-derepressed Enterobacter cloacae strain; these had unaltered or slightly reduced resistance to other β-lactams. Both had amino acids 213-226 deleted from the Ω loop of AmpC. Further stable mutants were obtained from AmpC-inducible and -derepressed E. cloacae in multi-step selection, and these variously had reduced expression of OmpC and OmpF, and/or Asn366His/Ile substitutions in AmpC.


Stable resistant mutants were difficult to select. Those from AmpC-derepressed E. cloacae had porin loss or AmpC changes, including Ω loop deletions. A Lys237Gln substitution in CTX-M-15 conferred resistance, but largely abolished ESBL activity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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