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Am J Pathol. 2012 May;180(5):2028-39. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2012.01.025. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

Interaction of clusterin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 and its implication for epithelial homeostasis and inflammation.

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USC Institute for Genetic Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.


Uncontrolled increases of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity have been causally linked to epithelial barrier disruption and severe symptoms of inflammatory diseases such as dry eye (DE). The data presented here show that the anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective intracellular and extracellular chaperone protein clusterin (CLU) interacts with MMP-9 both inside and outside epithelial cells. CLU bound very strongly to active MMP-9, with an affinity constant K(D) of 2.63 nmol/L. Unexpectedly, CLU had a much higher affinity for pro-MMP-9 than for active MMP-9 or pro-MMP-2, requiring the N-terminal propeptide domain of pro-MMP-9. The significance of the interaction between CLU and MMP-9 was demonstrated by the observation that CLU prevents stress-induced MMP-9 aggregation and inhibits MMP-9 enzymatic activity. Furthermore, CLU inhibited MMP-9-mediated disintegration of the tight junction structure formed between human epithelial cells. Additionally, CLU inhibited enzymatic activities of MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-7. Treatment with proinflammatory cytokines, which are known to increase MMP-9 transcription under inflammatory conditions, reduced the expression of CLU in human epithelial cells. Similarly, in a mouse model of human DE, inflammatory stress depleted CLU in the ocular surface epithelium but allowed MMP-9 to prevail therein. The present results thus provide novel insights into previously unrecognized mechanisms by which CLU maintains fluid-epithelial interface homeostasis, thereby preventing the onset of inflammatory conditions, especially where MMP-9 is actively involved.

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