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Am J Cardiol. 2012 Jun 1;109(11):1626-31. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.01.391. Epub 2012 Mar 20.

Comparison of left ventricular outflow geometry and aortic valve area in patients with aortic stenosis by 2-dimensional versus 3-dimensional echocardiography.

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  • 1Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, and UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.


The present study sought to elucidate the geometry of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) in patients with aortic stenosis and its effect on the accuracy of the continuity equation-based aortic valve area (AVA) estimation. Real-time 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D-TEE) provides high-resolution images of LVOT in patients with aortic stenosis. Thus, AVA is derived reliably with the continuity equation. Forty patients with aortic stenosis who underwent 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE), 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (2D-TEE), and RT3D-TEE were studied. In 2D-TTE and 2D-TEE, the LVOT areas were calculated as π × (LVOT dimension/2)(2). In RT3D-TEE, the LVOT areas and ellipticity ([diameter of the anteroposterior axis]/[diameter of the medial-lateral axis]) were evaluated by planimetry. The AVA is then determined using planimetry and the continuity equation method. LVOT shape was found to be elliptical (ellipticity of 0.80 ± 0.08). Accordingly, the LVOT areas measured by 2D-TTE (median 3.7 cm(2), interquartile range 3.1 to 4.1) and 2D-TEE (median 3.7 cm(2), interquartile range 3.1 to 4.0) were smaller than those by 3D-TEE (median 4.6 cm(2), interquartile range 3.9 to 5.3; p <0.05 vs both 2D-TTE and 2D-TEE). RT3D-TEE yielded a larger continuity equation-based AVA (median 1.0 cm(2), interquartile range 0.79 to 1.3, p <0.05 vs both 2D-TTE and 2D-TEE) than 2D-TTE (median 0.77 cm(2), interquartile range 0.64 to 0.94) and 2D-TEE (median 0.76 cm(2), interquartile range 0.62 to 0.95). Additionally, the continuity equation-based AVA by RT3D-TEE was consistent with the planimetry method. In conclusion, RT3D-TEE might allow more accurate evaluation of the elliptical LVOT geometry and continuity equation-based AVA in patients with aortic stenosis than 2D-TTE and 2D-TEE.

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