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Mol Biol Cell. 2012 May;23(10):1976-85. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E11-08-0714. Epub 2012 Mar 21.

Antiproliferative factor regulates connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) expression in T24 bladder carcinoma cells.

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Department of Basic Sciences, The Commonwealth Medical College, Scranton, PA 18509, USA.


Antiproliferative factor (APF) is a sialoglycopeptide elevated in the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC)-a chronic, painful bladder disease of unknown etiology. APF inhibits the proliferation of normal bladder epithelial and T24 bladder carcinoma cells in vitro by binding to cytoskeleton-associated protein 4 (CKAP4) and altering the transcription of genes involved in proliferation, cellular adhesion, and tumorigenesis; however, specific molecular mechanisms and effector genes that control APF's antiproliferative effects are unknown. In this study, we found that there was a 7.5-fold up-regulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) expression in T24 bladder carcinoma cells treated with APF. Western blot revealed a dose-dependent increase in CCN2 protein levels, with secretion into the culture medium after APF treatment. CCN2 overexpression enhanced APF's antiproliferative activity, whereas CCN2 knockdown diminished APF-induced p53 expression. Using a luciferase reporter construct, we found that APF treatment resulted in fivefold activation of the CCN2 proximal promoter and, of importance, that small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CKAP4 inhibited CCN2 upregulation. In addition, we demonstrate that CKAP4 translocates to the nucleus and binds to the CCN2 proximal promoter in an APF-dependent manner, providing evidence that CCN2 regulation by APF involves CKAP4 nuclear translocation and binding to the CCN2 promoter.

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