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J Med Econ. 2012;15(5):997-1018. doi: 10.3111/13696998.2012.672942. Epub 2012 Mar 21.

Cost-effectiveness analysis of palivizumab among pre-term infant populations covered by Medicaid in the United States.

Author information

1
State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Syracuse, NY, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Medicaid infants are at high risk of severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease. The study objective was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab in a Medicaid population.

METHODS:

A societal cost-utility analysis was conducted of prophylaxis with palivizumab vs no prophylaxis among four groups of premature infants: (1) <32 weeks gestational age (wGA) and ≤ 6 months chronologic age (CA); (2) 32-34 wGA, ≤ 3 months CA with 2009 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) risk factors (RF); (3) 32-35 wGA, ≤ 6 months CA with 2006 AAP RF; and (4) 32-35 wGA, ≤ 6 months CA with ≤ 1 RF. Full dosing of palivizumab was assumed throughout the RSV season (consistent with the FDA-approved label). All costs were in 2010 US dollars. The societal public payer spend for palivizumab was estimated using Medicaid reimbursement methodologies for the top 10 palivizumab-using states in 2010 minus mandatory manufacturer rebates. This study reports the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Sensitivity and probabilistic analyses were also conducted.

RESULTS:

Palivizumab saved costs and improved QALYs among infants <32 wGA. Palivizumab was cost-effective in infants 32-34 wGA with 2009 AAP RF ($16,037 per QALY) and in infants 32-35 wGA with 2006 AAP RF ($38,244 per QALY). The ICER for infants 32-35 wGA with ≤ 1 RF was $281,892 per QALY. Influential variables in the sensitivity analysis included the background rate of RSV hospitalization, the cost of palivizumab, and the efficacy of palivizumab.

KEY LIMITATIONS:

These results are not generalizable to commercially insured infants or infants outside of the US.

CONCLUSIONS:

This is the first cost-utility analysis of palivizumab in a Medicaid population. Palivizumab, when dosed consistent with the FDA-approved labeling, was either cost-saving or cost-effective among current guideline-eligible infants in the Medicaid population. Palivizumab did not demonstrate cost-effectiveness in 32-35 wGA infants with ≤ 1 RF.

PMID:
22435648
DOI:
10.3111/13696998.2012.672942
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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