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BMC Geriatr. 2012 Mar 20;12:9. doi: 10.1186/1471-2318-12-9.

Influence of social support on cognitive change and mortality in old age: results from the prospective multicentre cohort study AgeCoDe.

Collaborators (590)

Maier W, Scherer M, Abholz HH, Bachmann C, Bickel H, Blank W, van den Bussche H, Eifflaender-Gorfer S, Eisele M, Ernst A, Fuchs A, Heser K, Jessen F, Kaduszkiewicz H, Kaufeler T, Köhler M, König HH, Koppara A, Lange C, Leicht H, Luck T, Luppa M, Mayer M, Mösch E, Olbrich J, Pentzek M, Prokein J, Schumacher A, Riedel-Heller S, Stein J, Steinmann S, Tebarth F, Wagner M, Weckbecker K, Weeg D, Werle J, Weyerer S, Wiese B, Wolfsgruber S, Zimmermann T, Adrian C, Liese H, Bürfent I, von Aswege J, Honig WD, Gülle P, Schützendorf H, Benz E, Straimer A, Uhlenbrock A, Werner KM, Göbel-Schlatholt M, Kaschell HJ, Weckbecker K, Alfen T, Stahlschmidt M, Fischer K, Weisbach WR, Tschoke M, Dorn J, Menke H, Sievert E, Kröckert U, Salingré G, Mörchen C, Raab P, Baszenski A, Loth C, Knaak C, Hötte P, Pieper J, Wassermann D, Leyendecker HJ, Gohde G, Simons B, Brünger A, Petersen U, Wahl H, Tewes R, Junghans-Kullmann D, Grimm-Kraft A, Bohnau H, Pinsdorf U, Busch T, Keller G, Fuchs-Römer S, Beisel W, Richter-Polynice B, Cupsa F, Unkelbach RM, Schiller G, Damanakis B, Frenkel M, Ebeling KW, Berger P, Gillhausen K, Hellmessen U, Hümmerich H, Heede HC, Kormann BM, Peters WJ, Schott U, Matzies D, Schumacher A, Flettner TO, Thraen W, Siegmund H, Levacher C, Blankenstein T, Lamborelle E, Hollstein R, Hoffmann E, Ghane I, Claß R, Meier SW, Moers LW, Wundram U, Schmitt K, Missghian R, Spallek K, Schlösser C, Groß K, Bouché W, Linn U, Bormann G, Schulze G, Stelter K, Gatermann H, Fischer-Radizi D, Witt OP, Kavka S, Klötzl G, Münter KC, Baumhöfener M, Oberländer M, Schiewe C, Hufnagel J, Kressel AM, Kebschull M, Wagner C, Burkhardt F, Hase M, Büttner M, Houcken KH, Zebidi C, Bröhan J, Russ C, Bethge F, Rughase-Block G, Lorenzen M, Elsen A, Stiller L, Giovanopoulos A, Korte D, Jedicke U, Müller-Mette R, Richter A, Rauhala-Parrey S, Zoras C, Pfeil-Woltmann G, Knöppel-Frenz A, Kaiser M, Bruns J, Homann J, Gorgon G, Middendorf N, Menschke K, Stöver HH, Bayer HH, Quandt R, Rughase-Block G, Köllner HM, Strohbehn E, Haller T, Jesse N, Domsch M, Dahlke M, Lipp T, Lipp I, Amm M, Bauer H, Rauchmaul G, Ebert HJ, Gabriel-Müller A, Taut HC, Voß H, Mühlmann U, Schmidt H, Müller G, Hager E, Tunze B, Bräutigam B, Paschke T, Assmann HM, Schmalbruch I, Kässner G, Pförtzsch I, Ernst-Brennecke B, Rahnefeld U, Striegler P, Gierth M, Krügel A, Boehm M, Harnisch D, Kornisch-Koch S, Höne B, Schönherr L, Hambsch F, Meitsch K, Krägelin-Nobahar B, Herzig C, Georgi A, Schwarzmann E, Schinagl G, Pehnke U, Dayab M, Müller S, Onnasch JF, Brosig M, Frydetzki D, Abschke U, Sperling V, Gläser U, Lebuser F, Hagert D, Arnold G, Bauer VH, Becker H, Becker H, Besier W, Böttcher-Schmidt H, Füllgraf-Horst S, Göry E, Grella H, Grimm HH, Heck P, Hemler W, Henn E, Löb V, Maaßen-Kalweit G, Mayer M, Mühlig H, Müller A, Orlovius G, Perleberg H, Radon B, Renz H, Rieder C, Rosen M, Scheer G, Schilp M, Schmid A, Schneider M, Schneider C, Stahl R, Uhle C, Wachter J, Weihs N, Weingärtner B, Werner M, Willhauck HG, Wochele E, Wolfram B, Hofmann A, Allwein E, Ruile H, Koeppel A, Dick P, Holtz KF, Schmidt G, Fischer LI, Thaller J, Bloß G, Kreuzer F, Holthausen G, Maier KL, Krebs W, Mohr C, Koschine H, Ellersdorfer R, Speth M, Kleinhans M, Koutsouva-Sack P, Staudinger G, Eiber J, Thiel S, Gold C, Nalbach A, Reichert K, Rückgauer M, Neef M, Fleischmann V, Mayer N, Spiegl A, Renner F, Weishappel-Ketisch E, Kochems T, Hunger H, Hofbeck M, Neumeier A, Goldhofer E, Bommer T, Vollmuth R, Lanzinger K, Bustami-Löber S, Pauli R, Lindner J, Brandt G, Hohentanner O, Urban-Hüttner R, Porz P, Zimmerhackl B, Naumann B, Vach M, Hallwachs A, Haseke C, Ploch A, Bürkle-Grasse P, Swobodnik M, Tröger C, Jost D, Steinhuber R, Narr R, Nehmann-Hörwick G, Eder C, Pillin H, Loth F, Rücker B, Fritz N, Rafferzeder M, Zirpel D, Romberg HP, Liese H, Bürfent I, von Aswege J, Honig WD, Gülle P, Schützendorf H, Marx M, Straimer A, Uhlenbrock A, Werner KM, Göbel-Schlatholt M, Prechtel E, Kaschell HJ, Weckbecker K, Alfen T, Eimers-Kleene J, Fischer K, Weisbach WR, Tschoke M, Richter-Polynice B, Fliedner M, Hodgson B, Cupsa F, Hamkens W, Unkelbach RM, Schiller G, Damanakis B, Ackermann A, Frenkel M, Ebeling KW, Hoff B, Kirsch M, Miasnikov V, Berger P, Gillhausen K, Hellmessen U, Hümmerich H, Heede HC, Kormann BM, Lüttringhaus D, Peters WJ, Schott U, Matzies D, Schumacher A, Flettner TO, Thraen W, Wirtz C, Siegmund H, Groß K, Krug BU, Hütter P, Lau D, Bormann G, Schröder-Höch U, Herzog W, Weidner K, Fischer-Radizi D, Witt OP, Kavka S, Klötzl G, Titova L, Moritz A, Lipp T, Lipp I, Amm M, Bauer H, Rauchmaul G, Ebert HJ, Gabriel-Müller A, Taut HC, Voß H, Mühlmann U, Schmidt H, Müller G, Hager E, Tunze B, Bräutigam B, Ziehbold S, Paschke T, Assmann HM, Schmalbruch I, Kässner G, Arnold G, Bauer VH, Besier W, Böttcher-Schmidt H, Grella H, Ludwig I, Mayer M, Müller A, Noky A, Orlovius G, Perleberg H, Rieder C, Rosen M, Scheer G, Schilp M, Kunzendorf G, Schneider M, Wachter J, Weingärtner B, Willhauck HG, Herbst H, Hofmann A, Allwein E, Ruile H, Koeppel A, Friedrich P, Kirchner HG, Kirchner E, Knauer L, Dick P, Holtz KF, Schmid E, Schmidt G, Fischer LI, Thaller J, Bloß G, Kreuzer F, Kahmann U, Holthausen G, Maier KL, Krebs W, Mohr C, Koschine H, Ellersdorfer R, Speth M, Romberg HP, Prechtel E, Marx M, Eimers-Kleene J, Reich P, Stahl E, Lunow R, Undritz K, Voss B, Spreer A, Brenig O, Müller BG, Eich R, Vossel A, Leggewie D, Schmidt A, Aghdai-Heuser N, Witten L, Igel M, Fliedner M, Hodgson B, Hamkens W, Ackermann A, Hoff B, Kirsch M, Miasnikov V, Lüttringhaus D, Wirtz C, Opitz R, Bausch J, Mecking D, Ganßauge F, Peters E, Wester A, Petersen W, Daase M, Rüsing M, von Sethe C, Borngräber W, Colling-Pook B, Weidner U, Rieger P, Witte L, Busch HW, Unger J, Preis A, Mann M, Haeberle E, Köhler H, Schäfer R, Sliwiok H, Brühl VL, Stöver HH, Deest H, Ackermann-Körner M, Reinstorff D, Schlüter C, Heinrichs H, Dankwarth O, Böse M, Ryll U, Bauer R, Möltgen D, Schnakenbeck S, Beckmann K, Callsen A, Schiewe E, Gehm H, Lambert V, Hinkel-Reineke K, Stolzenbach CO, Berdin P, Windler F, Ziehbold S, Weidnitzer S, Rosenkranz E, Letzien N, Klossek D, Liebsch M, Zwicker A, Hantel U, Pilz M, Kirschner V, Arnold R, Poser U, Barthel W, Blechinger F, Fähnle M, Fritz RW, Jünemann S, Kirsch G, Kulinna J, Kunzendorf G, Legner-Görke A, Lehr C, Meer W, Noky A, Panzer C, Raabe A, Schmidt-Back H, Schürmann R, Stieglitz HG, von der Heide ML, Herbst H, Friedrich P, Kirchner HG, Kirchner E, Knauer L, Schmid E, Kahmann U, Kastner J, Janssen U, Standl A, Göttl C, Franze M, Moser G, Blümm A, Weber P, Poetsch W, Puppe H, Bommer T, Specht G, Badmann L, Leveringhaus M, Posern M, Ploch A, Potkowski R, Eder C, Schwandner M, Weigert R, Huber C.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Social support has been suggested to positively influence cognition and mortality in old age. However, this suggestion has been questioned due to inconsistent operationalisations of social support among studies and the small number of longitudinal studies available. This study aims to investigate the influence of perceived social support, understood as the emotional component of social support, on cognition and mortality in old age as part of a prospective longitudinal multicentre study in Germany.

METHODS:

A national subsample of 2,367 primary care patients was assessed twice over an observation period of 18 months regarding the influence of social support on cognitive function and mortality. Perceived social support was assessed using the 14-item version of the FSozU, which is a standardised and validated questionnaire of social support. Cognition was tested by the neuropsychological test battery of the Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia (SIDAM). The influence of perceived support on cognitive change was analysed by multivariate ANCOVA; mortality was analysed by multivariate logistic and cox regression.

RESULTS:

Sample cognitive change (N = 1,869): Mean age was 82.4 years (SD 3.3) at the beginning of the observation period, 65.9% were female, mean cognition was 49 (SD 4.4) in the SIDAM. Over the observation period cognitive function declined in 47.2% by a mean of 3.4 points. Sample mortality (N = 2,367): Mean age was 82.5 years (SD 3.4), 65.7% were female and 185 patients died during the observation period. Perceived social support showed no longitudinal association with cognitive change (F = 2.235; p = 0.135) and mortality (p = 0.332; CI 0.829-1.743).

CONCLUSIONS:

Perceived social support did not influence cognition and mortality over an 18 months observation period. However, previous studies using different operationalisations of social support and longer observation periods indicate that such an influence may exist. This influence is rather small and the result of complex interaction mechanisms between different components of social support; the emotional component seems to have no or only a limited effect. Further research is needed to describe the complex interactions between components of social support. Longer observation periods are necessary and standardised operationalisations of social support should be applied.

PMID:
22433223
PMCID:
PMC3364867
DOI:
10.1186/1471-2318-12-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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