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Circulation. 2012 Apr 24;125(16):1997-2005. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.070920. Epub 2012 Mar 19.

A randomized and clinical effectiveness trial comparing two pharmacogenetic algorithms and standard care for individualizing warfarin dosing (CoumaGen-II).

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Intermountain Medical Center, Cardiovascular Department, Murray, UT 84107-5701, USA.



Warfarin is characterized by marked variations in individual dose requirements and a narrow therapeutic window. Pharmacogenetics (PG) could improve dosing efficiency and safety, but clinical trials evidence is meager.


A Randomized and Clinical Effectiveness Trial Comparing Two Pharmacogenetic Algorithms and Standard Care for Individualizing Warfarin Dosing (CoumaGen-II) comprised 2 comparisons: (1) a blinded, randomized comparison of a modified 1-step (PG-1) with a 3-step algorithm (PG-2) (N=504), and (2) a clinical effectiveness comparison of PG guidance with use of either algorithm with standard dosing in a parallel control group (N=1866). A rapid method provided same-day CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping. Primary outcomes were percentage of out-of-range international normalized ratios at 1 and 3 months and percentage of time in therapeutic range. Primary analysis was modified intention to treat. In the randomized comparison, PG-2 was noninferior but not superior to PG-1 for percentage of out-of-range international normalized ratios at 1 month and 3 months and for percentage of time in therapeutic range at 3 months. However, the combined PG cohort was superior to the parallel controls (percentage of out-of-range international normalized ratios 31% versus 42% at 1 month; 30% versus 42% at 3 months; percentage of time in therapeutic range 69% versus 58%, 71% versus 59%, respectively, all P<0.001). Differences persisted after adjustment for age, sex, and clinical indication. There were fewer percentage international normalized ratios ≥4 and ≤1.5 and serious adverse events at 3 months (4.5% versus 9.4% of patients, P<0.001) with PG guidance.


These findings suggest that PG dosing should be considered for broader clinical application, a proposal that is being tested further in 3 major randomized trials. The simpler 1-step PG algorithm provided equivalent results and may be preferable for clinical application.


URL: Unique identifier: NCT00927862.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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