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Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012 Sep;42(3):486-92. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezs083. Epub 2012 Mar 16.

Impact of residual regurgitation after aortic valve replacement.

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1
Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Mild-to-moderate aortic regurgitation (AR) is not infrequently encountered after standard aortic valve replacement, and reportedly more often following transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Patients are usually managed by observational follow-up, but the clinical significance and natural history of residual AR are unknown. The goal of this study was to determine its impact on the outcome of these patients.

METHODS:

Between 1992 and 2011, 3201 consecutive patients underwent isolated standard aortic valve replacement in our institution. Of these, 135 patients (4.2%) were found to have paravalvular leak >1/4. Clinical, intraoperative as well as early and late postoperative outcome variables were studied. Factors associated with residual AR and their impact on survival were assessed by multivariate analysis.

RESULTS:

Mean follow-up was 4.5 ± 3.4 years. The use of a bioprosthesis, longer cardiopulmonary bypass duration and preoperative atrial fibrillation were associated with a higher risk of presenting residual AR. Survival was negatively affected by commonly identified comorbidities (diabetes, stroke, pulmonary disease, renal failure, peripheral vascular disease) but also by the presence of >1/4 residual AR. Survival in the latter group was lower than for patients with ≤1/4 AR at all time points: 91.4 vs 96.7%, 77.5 vs 82.4% and 44.1 vs 54.5% at 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Postoperative residual AR >1/4 is an independent predictor of postoperative mortality and should be considered in the selection of surgical approach and management strategy for patients in need of standard and transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

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PMID:
22427400
DOI:
10.1093/ejcts/ezs083
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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