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Brain. 2012 May;135(Pt 5):1348-69. doi: 10.1093/brain/aws019. Epub 2012 Mar 16.

A developmental and genetic classification for malformations of cortical development: update 2012.

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Neuroradiology, University of California at San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94913-0628, USA.


Malformations of cerebral cortical development include a wide range of developmental disorders that are common causes of neurodevelopmental delay and epilepsy. In addition, study of these disorders contributes greatly to the understanding of normal brain development and its perturbations. The rapid recent evolution of molecular biology, genetics and imaging has resulted in an explosive increase in our knowledge of cerebral cortex development and in the number and types of malformations of cortical development that have been reported. These advances continue to modify our perception of these malformations. This review addresses recent changes in our perception of these disorders and proposes a modified classification based upon updates in our knowledge of cerebral cortical development.

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