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Saudi Med J. 2012 Mar;33(3):262-71.

Effects of enteral and parenteral glutamine on intestinal mucosa and on levels of blood glutamine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-10 in an experimental sepsis model.

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Ministry of Health, Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Numune Training and Research Hospital, Trabzon, Turkey.



To investigate the effects of enteral and parenteral glutamine (Gln) usage on rats in sepsis.


This study was conducted in Istanbul University Experimental Medical Research Institution (DETAE) laboratory, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey between June and September 2009. The levels of blood Gln, tumor necrosis-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-10 was measured. Samples of tissue were obtained from the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and lower lobe of the right lung to evaluate the reproduction of bacteria, and samples of tissue were also obtained from the small intestine to evaluate blood and villus atrophy.


Bacteremia of Group EP (combined group) were found lower than Group C (control) (p=0.007). Villous atrophy rates of all groups were lower than Group C: between Group E (enteral) and C (p=0.003); between Group P (parenteral alanine) and C (p=0.019); and between Group EP and C (p=0.001). The values of serum TNF-alpha and IL-10 of Group EP and P were lower than the other groups at the 24th and 96th hours (p=0.000).


In this study we found that the most efficient Gln administration technique in sepsis was enteral administration together with parenteral administration due to trophic effect on the intestinal mucosa, decrease of reproduction in tissue and blood cultures, immunomodulator effect, and approximately the same cost as parenteral application.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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