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Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012 Apr;13(6):879-93. doi: 10.1517/14656566.2012.667074. Epub 2012 Mar 19.

Zolpidem for insomnia.

Author information

1
Tufts University School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Physiology and Pharmacology, 136 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA. dj.greenblatt@tufts.edu

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

The imidazopyridine derivative zolpidem , which acts as a benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor agonist, is the most widely prescribed hypnotic drug in the US.

AREAS COVERED:

This review addresses the neuroreceptor properties of zolpidem; clinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and drug interactions; efficacy as a hypnotic; adverse effects; tolerance, dependence and withdrawal; relation to motor vehicle accidents and complex sleep behaviors; and new dosage forms.

EXPERT OPINION:

Approved doses of zolpidem (10 mg for adults, 5 mg for the elderly) are consistently effective in reducing sleep latency and consequently increasing sleep duration in patients with insomnia. However, favorable effects on sleep maintenance are observed less consistently. Residual daytime effects are unlikely with recommended doses, and provided that at least 8 h elapse prior to arising. Hypnotic efficacy is maintained with repeated nightly use, and the risk of rebound insomnia is low. Dependence and abuse of zolpidem are no more likely to occur than with typical benzodiazepines. Newly available novel dosage forms of zolpidem have increased therapeutic options for patients with insomnia variants such as sleep maintenance insomnia and middle-of-the-night awakening.

PMID:
22424586
DOI:
10.1517/14656566.2012.667074
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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