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Acta Biomater. 2012 Jul;8(6):2401-10. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2012.03.020. Epub 2012 Mar 13.

Reverse freeze casting: a new method for fabricating highly porous titanium scaffolds with aligned large pores.

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  • 1WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.


Highly porous titanium with aligned large pores up to 500 μm in size, which is suitable for scaffold applications, was successfully fabricated using the reverse freeze casting method. In this process we have newly developed, the Ti powders migrated spontaneously along the pre-aligned camphene boundaries at a temperature of 45.5°C and formed a titanium-camphene mixture with an aligned structure; this was followed by freeze drying and sintering. As the casting time increased from 24 to 48 h, the initial columnar structures turned into lamellar structures, with the porosity decreasing from 69 to 51%. This reduction in porosity caused the compressive yield strength to increase from 121 to 302 MPa, with an elastic modulus of the samples being in the range of 2-5 GPa. In addition, it was demonstrated that reverse freeze casting can also be successfully applied to various other raw powders, suggesting that the method developed in this work opens up new avenues for the production of a range of porous metallic and ceramic scaffolds with highly aligned pores.

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