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JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012 Mar;5(3 Suppl):S53-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2011.12.008.

Coronary plaque composition, morphology, and outcomes in patients with and without chronic kidney disease presenting with acute coronary syndromes.

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  • 1Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This study sought to evaluate the impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on coronary atherosclerotic plaque composition, morphology, and outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

BACKGROUND:

CKD patients presenting with ACS are at increased risk for adverse events. Whether or not this increased risk reflects differences in coronary plaque composition remains unknown.

METHODS:

In the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study, patients presenting with ACS in whom percutaneous coronary intervention was successful underwent 3-vessel grayscale and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound imaging. Lesions were prospectively characterized, and patients were followed for a median of 3.4 years. We conducted a patient-level and lesion-level analysis of study participants by comparing intravascular ultrasound parameters of untreated nonculprit lesions in patients with and without CKD.

RESULTS:

Patients with CKD (n = 73, 11.3%) were older, more often female and diabetic compared to those without CKD (n = 573). Nonculprit lesions in patients with (n = 280) versus without (n = 2,390) CKD were more likely to have plaque burden ≥ 70% (11.8% vs. 8.5%, p = 0.05) and minimal luminal area ≤ 4.0 mm(2) (25.9% vs. 19.2%, p = 0.005). The percentage of plaque comprised of necrotic core (15.0% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.0001) and dense calcium (8.2% vs. 6.4%, p < 0.0001) was higher while fibrous tissue (57.7% vs. 59.8%, p < 0.0001) was lower in CKD versus non-CKD lesions. The 3-year composite rate of cardiac death, cardiac arrest, or myocardial infarction (15.1% vs. 3.3%, p < 0.0001) was significantly higher in patients with than in those without CKD, although there were no differences in the rates of events adjudicated to nonculprit lesions.

CONCLUSIONS:

Following percutaneous coronary intervention of all culprit lesions in ACS, patients with versus without CKD have more extensive and severe atherosclerosis remaining in their coronary tree with plaque composed of greater necrotic core and less fibrous tissue. These influences resulted in nonsignificantly different rates of non-culprit lesion-related adverse events, although cardiac death, arrest, or myocardial infarction were more common in patients with CKD.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00180466.

PMID:
22421231
DOI:
10.1016/j.jcmg.2011.12.008
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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