Send to

Choose Destination
Adv Virus Res. 2012;82:91-118. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394621-8.00014-5.

Bacteriophage-encoded bacterial virulence factors and phage-pathogenicity island interactions.

Author information

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.


The role of bacteriophages as natural vectors for some of the most potent bacterial toxins is well recognized and includes classical type I membrane-acting superantigens, type II pore-forming lysins, and type III exotoxins, such as diphtheria and botulinum toxins. Among Gram-negative pathogens, a novel class of bacterial virulence factors called effector proteins (EPs) are phage encoded among pathovars of Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., and Salmonella enterica. This chapter gives an overview of the different types of virulence factors encoded within phage genomes based on their role in bacterial pathogenesis. It also discusses phage-pathogenicity island interactions uncovered from studies of phage-encoded EPs. A detailed examination of the filamentous phage CTXφ that encodes cholera toxin is given as the sole example to date of a single-stranded DNA phage that encodes a bacterial toxin.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center