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Genetics. 2012 Mar;190(3):841-54. doi: 10.1534/genetics.111.136911.

Gene overexpression: uses, mechanisms, and interpretation.

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  • 1Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.


The classical genetic approach for exploring biological pathways typically begins by identifying mutations that cause a phenotype of interest. Overexpression or misexpression of a wild-type gene product, however, can also cause mutant phenotypes, providing geneticists with an alternative yet powerful tool to identify pathway components that might remain undetected using traditional loss-of-function analysis. This review describes the history of overexpression, the mechanisms that are responsible for overexpression phenotypes, tests that begin to distinguish between those mechanisms, the varied ways in which overexpression is used, the methods and reagents available in several organisms, and the relevance of overexpression to human disease.

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