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Curr Opin Lipidol. 2012 Apr;23(2):91-7. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e328350a425.

Lipid-based carriers of microRNAs and intercellular communication.

Author information

1
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. vickerskc@nhlbi.nih.gov

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are uniquely stable in plasma, and the levels of specific circulating miRNAs can differ with disease. Extracellular miRNAs are associated with lipid-based carriers and lipid-free proteins. miRNAs can be transferred from cell-to-cell by lipid-based carriers and affect gene expression. This review summarizes recent studies that demonstrate the transfer of miRNA between cells and their potential role in intercellular communication.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Microvesicles, exosomes, apoptotic bodies, lipoproteins, and large microparticles contain miRNAs. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are transferred between dendritic cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and adipocytes in lipid-based carriers. miRNAs are also transferred from T cells to antigen-presenting cells, from stem cells to endothelial cells and fibroblasts, from macrophages to breast cancer cells, and from epithelial cells to hepatocytes in lipid-based carriers. The cellular export of miRNAs in lipid-based carriers is regulated by the ceramide pathway, and the delivery of lipid-associated miRNAs to recipient cells is achieved by various routes, including endocytotic uptake, membrane-fusion, and scavenger receptors.

SUMMARY:

Cellular miRNAs are exported in and to lipid-based carriers (vesicles and lipoprotein particles) and transferred to recipient cells with gene expression changes as intercellular communication.

PMID:
22418571
PMCID:
PMC5570485
DOI:
10.1097/MOL.0b013e328350a425
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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