Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Gen Intern Med. 2012 Aug;27(8):893-900. doi: 10.1007/s11606-012-2023-7. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Racial and ethnic differences in cardio-metabolic risk in individuals with undiagnosed diabetes: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008.

Author information

1
Ralph H. Johnson Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA. huntke@musc.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although early recognition and treatment of diabetes may be essential to prevent complications, roughly one-fifth of diabetes remains undiagnosed.

OBJECTIVE:

Examine cardio-metabolic risk factors and their control in non-Hispanic white (NHW), non-Hispanic black (NHB) and Mexican American (MA) individuals with undiagnosed diabetes.

DESIGN:

Nationally representative cross-sectional study of participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) continuous cycles conducted 1999 through 2008.

PARTICIPANTS:

Of 22,621 non-pregnant individuals aged ≥20 years, 2521 had diagnosed diabetes. Of the remaining 20,100 individuals, 17,963 had HbA1c measured, 551 of whom were classified as having undiagnosed diabetes and comprise the study population.

MAIN MEASURES:

Undiagnosed diabetes was defined as HbA1c ≥ 6.5% without a self-report of physician diagnosed diabetes. Cardio-metabolic risk factor control was examined using regression methods for complex survey data.

KEY RESULTS:

Among individuals with undiagnosed diabetes, mean HbA1c level was 7.7% (95% CI: 7.5, 7.9), 19.3% (95% CI: 14.2, 24.3) smoked, 59.7% (95% CI: 54.5, 64.8%) had hypertension and 96.5% (95% CI: 94.6, 98.4%) had dyslipidemia. Lipid profiles were remarkably different across racial-ethnic groups: NHB had the highest LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, but the lowest triglycerides, while MA had the highest triglycerides and the lowest LDL-cholesterol. After adjusting for age, sex, NHANES examination cycle and use of either blood pressure or lipid medication, the odds of having blood pressure ≥130/80 mmHg was higher in NHB [1.92 (95% CI: 1.09, 3.55)] than NHW, while the odds of having LDL-cholesterol >100 mg/dl was higher in NHW[2.93 (95% CI: 1.37, 6.24)] and NHB[3.34 (95% CI: 1.08, 10.3)] than MA.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a nationally representative sample of individuals with undiagnosed diabetes, cardio-metabolic risk factor levels were high across all racial/ethnic groups, but NHB and MA had poorer control compared to NHW. Interventions that target identification of diabetes and treatment of cardio-metabolic risk factors are needed.

PMID:
22415867
PMCID:
PMC3403154
DOI:
10.1007/s11606-012-2023-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center