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Mol Neurobiol. 2012 Jun;45(3):455-64. doi: 10.1007/s12035-012-8254-0. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Anti-proliferative effects of tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) involve ceramide and cell cycle inhibition.

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1
Department of Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792, USA.

Erratum in

  • Mol Neurobiol. 2012 Jun;45(3):465.

Abstract

Tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) inhibits phosphatidylcholine (PC)-phospholipase C (PLC) and/or sphingomyelin (SM) synthase (SMS). Inhibiting SMS can increase ceramide levels, which can inhibit cell proliferation. Here, we examined how individual inflammatory and glia cell proliferation is altered by D609. Treatment with 100-μM D609 significantly attenuated the proliferation of RAW 264.7 macrophages, N9 and BV-2 microglia, and DITNC(1) astrocytes, without affecting cell viability. D609 significantly inhibited BrdU incorporation in BV-2 microglia and caused accumulation of cells in G(1) phase with decreased number of cells in the S phase. D609 treatment for 2 h significantly increased ceramide levels in BV-2 microglia, which, following a media change, returned to control levels 22 h later. This suggests that the effect of D609 may be mediated, at least in part, through ceramide increase via SMS inhibition. Western blots demonstrated that 2-h treatment of BV-2 microglia with D609 increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21 and down-regulated phospho-retinoblastoma (Rb), both of which returned to basal levels 22 h after removal of D609. Exogenous C8-ceramide also inhibited BV-2 microglia proliferation without loss of viability and decreased BrdU incorporation, supporting the involvement of ceramide in D609-mediated cell cycle arrest. Our current data suggest that D609 may offer benefit after stroke (Adibhatla and Hatcher, Mol Neurobiol 41:206-217, 2010) through ceramide-mediated cell cycle arrest, thus restricting glial cell proliferation.

PMID:
22415444
PMCID:
PMC3381991
DOI:
10.1007/s12035-012-8254-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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