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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2012 Mar 14;13(4):213-24. doi: 10.1038/nrm3312.

Transcriptional integration of metabolism by the nuclear sterol-activated receptors LXR and FXR.

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Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, 675 Charles E Young Drive South, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.


Nuclear receptors are integrators of hormonal and nutritional signals, mediating changes to metabolic pathways within the body. Given that modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism has been linked to diseases including type 2 diabetes, obesity and atherosclerosis, a greater understanding of pathways that regulate metabolism in physiology and disease is crucial. The liver X receptors (LXRs) and the farnesoid X receptors (FXRs) are activated by oxysterols and bile acids, respectively. Mounting evidence indicates that these nuclear receptors have essential roles, not only in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid metabolism but also in the integration of sterol, fatty acid and glucose metabolism.

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