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Nutrition. 2012 Apr;28(4):344-56. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2011.11.006.

A 21st century evaluation of the safety of oral vitamin D.

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The Nutrition Doctor, Skokie, Illinois, USA.


The safety of daily consumption of vitamin D was examined. A detailed literature search was conducted using the search term vitamin D; primary and secondary sources of original data and meta-analyses and systematic reviews were evaluated and summarized. A large body of scientific evidence demonstrates that long-term daily intakes of 600 to 800 IU of vitamin D are insufficient to achieve and sustain vitamin D adequacy (serum 25-hydroxyergocalciferol + 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration >75 nmol/L). Maximization of the physiologic benefits of vitamin D to the musculoskeletal system, the central and peripheral nervous systems, the heart and central and peripheral cardiovascular systems, the respiratory system, the skin, the eyes, dentition, glucoregulation, immunoregulation, and disease resistance requires daily vitamin D intakes of at least 1500 IU. Because long-term daily intakes up to and including 10 000 IU of vitamin D do not produce signs or symptoms of vitamin D toxicity and are safe for the entire general population of otherwise healthy adults, even daily vitamin D intakes of 2000 IU allow for the often-cited and excessively conservative five-fold safety factor. In conclusion, long-term daily intakes of up to and including 10 000 IU of vitamin D maximize physiologic benefits and are safe.

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