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J Periodontol. 2013 Jan;84(1):58-67. doi: 10.1902/jop.2012.110643. Epub 2012 Mar 13.

Alveolar bone loss associated with age-related macular degeneration in males.

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Department of Ophthalmology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.



The aim of this study is to examine the relationship of selected systemic and oral health parameters and the salivary presence of six periodontal pathogens to age-related macular degeneration (AMD).


The present cross-sectional study includes data on 1,751 individuals (≥30 years old). General health information was obtained by questionnaires and interviews, including self-reported diagnosis of AMD, as well as by the general and oral health examination, including panoramic radiography and laboratory analyses. Fifty-four individuals with degenerative fundus changes formed the AMD group, and the other 1,697 formed the non-AMD group. Pearson χ(2) and analysis of variance tests were used for comparisons of categorical parameters and continuous parameters between the participant groups, respectively. A logistic regression analysis was performed to study the association of AMD with alveolar bone loss and the number of teeth by controlling for age, diabetic status, systolic blood pressure, education, and smoking, and also for the carriage of salivary bacteria.


Advanced age, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes were associated with AMD (P <0.001), whereas the carriage rates of the examined periodontal pathogens were not. In the whole study population, the participants with AMD had fewer teeth (P <0.001) and more alveolar bone loss (P = 0.004) compared with non-AMD participants. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, smoking, and diabetes, alveolar bone loss was associated with AMD in males with an odds ratio of 4.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.3 to 14.6, P = 0.013).


In this population-based health survey, alveolar bone loss is independently associated with AMD in males.

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