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Int J Clin Pract. 2012 May;66(5):446-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2012.02911.x. Epub 2012 Mar 13.

Dapagliflozin, metformin XR, or both: initial pharmacotherapy for type 2 diabetes, a randomised controlled trial.

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VA San Diego Healthcare System Research Service and University of California San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USA.



Combining metformin (XR) with dapagliflozin to initiate pharmacotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and high baseline HbA1c may be advantageous. We conducted two randomised, double-blind, three-arm 24-week trials in treatment-naïve patients to compare dapagliflozin plus metformin, dapagliflozin alone and metformin alone.


Eligible patients had baseline HbA1c 7.5-12%. Each trial had three arms: dapagliflozin plus metformin, dapagliflozin monotherapy and metformin monotherapy. Dapagliflozin in combination and as monotherapy was dosed at 5 mg (Study 1) and 10 mg (Study 2). Metformin in combination and as monotherapy was titrated to 2000 mg. The primary endpoint was HbA1c change from baseline; secondary endpoints included change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and weight.


In both trials, combination therapy led to significantly greater reductions in HbA1c compared with either monotherapy: -2.05 for dapagliflozin + metformin, -1.19 for dapagliflozin, and -1.35 for metformin (p < 0.0001) (Study 1); -1.98 for dapagliflozin + metformin, -1.45 for dapagliflozin and -1.44 for metformin (p < 0.0001) (Study 2). Combination therapy was statistically superior to monotherapy in reduction of FPG (p < 0.0001 for both studies); combination therapy was more effective than metformin for weight reduction (p < 0.0001). Dapagliflozin 10 mg was non-inferior to metformin in reducing HbA1c (Study 2). Events suggestive of genital infection were reported in 6.7%, 6.9% and 2.0% (Study 1) and 8.5%, 12.8% and 2.4% (Study 2) of patients in combination, dapagliflozin and metformin groups; events suggestive of urinary tract infection were reported in 7.7%, 7.9% and 7.5% (Study 1) and 7.6%, 11.0% and 4.3% (Study 2) of patients in the respective groups. No major hypoglycaemia was reported.


In treatment-naïve patients with T2D, dapagliflozin plus metformin was generally well tolerated and effective in reducing HbA1c, FPG and weight. Dapagliflozin-induced glucosuria led to an increase in events suggestive of urinary tract and genital infections.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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