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Mar Drugs. 2012 Feb;10(2):451-64. doi: 10.3390/md10020451. Epub 2012 Feb 16.

Novel marine phenazines as potential cancer chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory agents.

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College of Pharmacy, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720, USA.


Two new (1 and 2) and one known phenazine derivative (lavanducyanin, 3) were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. (strain CNS284). In mammalian cell culture studies, compounds 1, 2 and 3 inhibited TNF-α-induced NFκB activity (IC₅₀ values of 4.1, 24.2, and 16.3 μM, respectively) and LPS-induced nitric oxide production (IC₅₀ values of >48.6, 15.1, and 8.0 μM, respectively). PGE₂ production was blocked with greater efficacy (IC₅₀ values of 7.5, 0.89, and 0.63 μM, respectively), possibly due to inhibition of cyclooxygenases in addition to the expression of COX-2. Treatment of cultured HL-60 cells led to dose-dependent accumulation in the subG1 compartment of the cell cycle, as a result of apoptosis. These data provide greater insight on the biological potential of phenazine derivatives, and some guidance on how various substituents may alter potential anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects.


NFκB; apoptosis; chemoprevention; inflammation; lavanducyanin ; phenazines

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