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Sensors (Basel). 2009;9(5):3942-57. doi: 10.3390/s90503942. Epub 2009 May 25.

A heterogeneous wireless identification network for the localization of animals based on stochastic movements.

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ETSI Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avd. Complutense 30, 28040 Madrid, Spain; E-mails: (C.G.); (J.J.L.); (S.Z.); (N.D.); (I.R.).


The improvement in the transmission range in wireless applications without the use of batteries remains a significant challenge in identification applications. In this paper, we describe a heterogeneous wireless identification network mostly powered by kinetic energy, which allows the localization of animals in open environments. The system relies on radio communications and a global positioning system. It is made up of primary and secondary nodes. Secondary nodes are kinetic-powered and take advantage of animal movements to activate the node and transmit a specific identifier, reducing the number of batteries of the system. Primary nodes are battery-powered and gather secondary-node transmitted information to provide it, along with position and time data, to a final base station in charge of the animal monitoring. The system allows tracking based on contextual information obtained from statistical data.


energy harvesting; energy-aware network; heterogeneous network; stochastic transmission

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