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Sensors (Basel). 2009;9(5):3586-603. doi: 10.3390/s90503586. Epub 2009 May 13.

Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing.

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Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Livestock Industries, Private Bag 5, Floreat, WA, 6014, Australia.


Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.


animal-landscape interactions; cattle; extensive cattle system; high fix-rate GPS; social behaviour; telemetry data

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