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Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep;108(5):778-93. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512000529. Epub 2012 Mar 13.

Current and emerging concepts on the role of peripheral signals in the control of food intake and development of obesity.

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INRA and AgroParis Tech, UMR 1319, MICALIS, Neurobiology of Ingestive Behavior, Jouy-en-Josas Cedex, France.


The gastrointestinal peptides are classically known as short-term signals, primarily inducing satiation and/or satiety. However, accumulating evidence has broadened this view, and their role in long-term energy homeostasis and the development of obesity has been increasingly recognised. In the present review, the recent research involving the role of satiation signals, especially ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY, in the development and treatment of obesity will be discussed. Their activity, interactions and release profile vary constantly with changes in dietary and energy influences, intestinal luminal environment, body weight and metabolic status. Manipulation of gut peptides and nutrient sensors in the oral and postoral compartments through diet and/or changes in gut microflora or using multi-hormone 'cocktail' therapy are among promising approaches aimed at reducing excess food consumption and body-weight gain.

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