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J Midlife Health. 2011 Jul;2(2):81-5. doi: 10.4103/0976-7800.92537.

Prevalence and related risk factors of osteoporosis in peri- and postmenopausal Indian women.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Public Health, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.



We undertook this study involving 200 peri- and postmenopausal women to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis, and in turn increase the awareness, education, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis.


Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, UT Chandigarh, India, and a clinical study.


A detailed medical, obstetrical, menstrual, and drug history was recorded in a proforma designated for the study. Height and weight was measured, weight-bearing exercise was assessed, and sunlight exposure per day for each woman was recorded. Food intake was estimated by using the 24-hour dietary recall method, and calcium and vitamin D consumption pattern was assessed. Bone mineral density (BMD) at postero-anterior lumbar spine and dual femurs was assessed by densitometer. Women were classified according to the WHO criteria.


Student's t-test, multiple logistic regression analysis.


The prevalence of low BMD was found in more than half of this population (53%). The mean age in group I (normal BMD) was found to be 50.56 ± 5.74 years as compared to 52.50 ± 5.94 in group II with low BMD (P=0.02). The two groups were similar with respect to parity, education, socioeconomic status, family history of osteoporosis, hormone replacement therapy, and thyroid disorders. 46.8% of the women in group I and 33% of the women in group II had low physical activity and there was no statistically significant difference in sunlight exposure between the groups. Parity or the number of children and type of menopause was not seen to have much association with low BMD in our study. Lack of exercise and low calcium diet were significantly associated with low BMD. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, exercise, menopause, and low calcium diet acted as significant predictors of low bone density.


The findings from the study suggest the need for large community-based studies so that high-risk population can be picked up and early interventions and other life style changes can be instituted if there is delay in implementing national or international health strategies to tackle this increasing global health problem. Strategies to identify and manage low BMD in the primary care setting need to be established and implemented.


Bone mineral density; calcium; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan; osteoporosis and menopause

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