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Contemp Clin Trials. 2012 Jul;33(4):576-82. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2012.02.014. Epub 2012 Mar 3.

Tobacco dependence counseling in a randomized multisite clinical trial.

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Nicotine Dependence Center Research Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.


Pharmacotherapy trials for treating tobacco dependence would benefit from behavioral interventions providing treatment consistent with clinical practice guidelines but not directing participants to treatments not evaluated in the trial. The Smoke Free and Living It© behavioral intervention manual includes participant and interventionist guides and is designed to provide both practical counseling and intra-treatment support. We utilized this intervention manual in a multicenter, randomized clinical trial of smokers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this study, we evaluated how the interventional manual performed in a "train-the-trainer" model requiring uniform counseling across 6 sites and 15 interventionists. We analyzed the skill-adherence of the interventionists and the intervention-adherence of the participants. The 255 randomized participants completed 9.3±2.8 sessions (mean±SD), with 157 participants (61.6%) completing all 11 of the sessions and 221 (86.7%) completing at least 6 of the 11 sessions. Of the 163 sessions for which the study interventionists were evaluated, 156 (95.7%) were rated as adherent to protocol and "meeting expectations" on at least 6 of 7 established criteria, illustrating that fidelity can be maintained with minimal supervision. The self-help and interventionists guides of the Smoke Free and Living It manual can thus be used to provide behavioral intervention with a high rate of adherence by both the interventionists and the participants. This manual meets the requirements of the United States Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline, can be adapted to specific research protocols, and provides a useful option for behavioral intervention during clinical trials for smoking cessation.

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