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PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32943. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032943. Epub 2012 Mar 5.

A mitochondria-dependent pathway mediates the apoptosis of GSE-induced yeast.

Author information

1
Laboratory of food safety and molecular biology, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Abstract

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), which has powerful anti-fungal activity, can induce apoptosis in S. cerevisiae. The yeast cells underwent apoptosis as determined by testing for apoptotic markers of DNA cleavage and typical chromatin condensation by Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) and 4,6'-diaminidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and electron microscopy. The changes of ΔΨmt (mitochondrial transmembrane potential) and ROS (reactive oxygen species) indicated that the mitochondria took part in the apoptotic process. Changes in this process detected by metabonomics and proteomics revealed that the yeast cells tenaciously resisted adversity. Proteins related to redox, cellular structure, membrane, energy and DNA repair were significantly increased. In this study, the relative changes in the levels of proteins and metabolites showed the tenacious resistance of yeast cells. However, GSE induced apoptosis in the yeast cells by destruction of the mitochondrial 60 S ribosomal protein, L14-A, and prevented the conversion of pantothenic acid to coenzyme A (CoA). The relationship between the proteins and metabolites was analyzed by orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS). We found that the changes of the metabolites and the protein changes had relevant consistency.

PMID:
22403727
PMCID:
PMC3293924
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0032943
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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