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Photomed Laser Surg. 2012 Apr;30(4):222-30. doi: 10.1089/pho.2011.3172. Epub 2012 Mar 8.

Comparative evaluation of the effects of different photoablative laser irradiation protocols on the gingiva of periodontopathic patients.

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1
Odontostomatologic Laser Therapy Center, Florence, Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We aimed at quantifying the presence of periodontopathogens in gingival biopsies from periodontitis patients treated with different photoablative lasers (diode GaAs, Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and CO(2) lasers) and histologically analyzing their effects on the gingiva.

BACKGROUND DATA:

Substantial evidence indicates that intracellular location of periodontal bacteria in the gingival epithelium may contribute to chronic periodontitis.

METHODS:

Sixteen adult subjects with chronic periodontitis were subjected to conventional scaling/root planing and topical chlorhexidine, and immediately laser-irradiated on the inner and outer free gingiva. Small gingival biopsies were subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction and cytofluorescence to identify periodontopathogens; tissue damage and endothelial ICAM-1 expression were assessed by histological and immunofluorescence analyses.

RESULTS:

High DNA levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia, and Ekenella corrodens, were detected in all samples. Nd:YAG and diode lasers were capable of eradicating periodontopathogenic bacteria endowed within gingival epithelial cells outside periodontal pockets, without causing connective tissue damage and microvessel rupture. They also reduced ICAM-1 immunolabelling by the vascular endothelium. Conversely, Er:YAG lasers induced marked microvessel rupture and bleeding and failed to completely and selectively ablate the infected gingival epithelium, whereas CO(2) laser caused heat-induced coagulation of the lamina propria.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study indicates that periodontopathogens can persist within cells outside the pocket epithelium, despite conventional periodontal treatment. Nd:YAG and diode lasers are able to eradicate intra- and extracellular bacteria from these sites, suggesting that they can be considered suitable devices to improve the clinical outcome of periodontal disease.

PMID:
22401128
DOI:
10.1089/pho.2011.3172
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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