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Leuk Lymphoma. 2012 Oct;53(10):1911-9. doi: 10.3109/10428194.2012.673225. Epub 2012 Apr 23.

Cigarette smoking is associated with a small increase in the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis of 24 observational studies.

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Division of Hematology and Oncology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI 02906, USA.


Previous studies have evaluated the association between cigarette smoking and incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with inconclusive results. Our main objective was to evaluate this relationship using a meta-analysis of observational studies. A literature search was undertaken through October 2011 looking for pertinent studies. Seven prospective cohort and 17 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Outcomes were calculated using the random-effects model and are reported as odds ratio (OR). Meta-regression was used to evaluate the dose-response of intensity and duration of smoking in NHL incidence. Our study found an OR of 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.73; p =‚ÄČ0.001) in current female smokers seen only in case-control studies. No increased odds of NHL was seen in men. There was no association between smoking and the most common NHL subtypes, with the exception of a statistical trend toward a higher incidence of T-cell lymphoma. In conclusion, there appears to be an increase in the odds of NHL in current female smokers.

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