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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012 Mar;2(3):a007724. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a007724.

Connecting type 1 and type 2 diabetes through innate immunity.

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1
Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Abstract

The escalating epidemic of obesity has driven the prevalence of both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus to historically high levels. Chronic low-grade inflammation, which is present in both type 1 and type 2 diabetics, contributes to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. The accumulation of activated innate immune cells in metabolic tissues results in release of inflammatory mediators, in particular, IL-1β and TNFα, which promote systemic insulin resistance and β-cell damage. In this article, we discuss the central role of innate immunity and, in particular, the macrophage in insulin sensitivity and resistance, β-cell damage, and autoimmune insulitis. We conclude with a discussion of the therapeutic implications of this integrated understanding of diabetic pathology.

PMID:
22393536
PMCID:
PMC3282495
DOI:
10.1101/cshperspect.a007724
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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