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Plant Physiol. 2012 May;159(1):450-60. doi: 10.1104/pp.112.195578. Epub 2012 Mar 5.

Cooperative function of PLDδ and PLDα1 in abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis.

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Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8530, Japan.


Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in responses to abiotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. To investigate the roles of two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PLDs, PLDα1 and PLDδ, in ABA signaling in guard cells, we analyzed ABA responses in guard cells using Arabidopsis wild type, pldα1 and pldδ single mutants, and a pldα1 pldδ double mutant. ABA-induced stomatal closure was suppressed in the pldα1 pldδ double mutant but not in the pld single mutants. The pldα1 and pldδ mutations reduced ABA-induced phosphatidic acid production in epidermal tissues. Expression of either PLDα1 or PLDδ complemented the double mutant stomatal phenotype. ABA-induced stomatal closure in both pldα1 and pldδ single mutants was inhibited by a PLD inhibitor (1-butanol ), suggesting that both PLDα1 and PLDδ function in ABA-induced stomatal closure. During ABA-induced stomatal closure, wild-type guard cells accumulate reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and undergo cytosolic alkalization, but these changes are reduced in guard cells of the pldα1 pldδ double mutant. Inward-rectifying K(+) channel currents of guard cells were inhibited by ABA in the wild type but not in the pldα1 pldδ double mutant. ABA inhibited stomatal opening in the wild type and the pldδ mutant but not in the pldα1 mutant. In wild-type rosette leaves, ABA significantly increased PLDδ transcript levels but did not change PLDα1 transcript levels. Furthermore, the pldα1 and pldδ mutations mitigated ABA inhibition of seed germination. These results suggest that PLDα1 and PLDδ cooperate in ABA signaling in guard cells but that their functions do not completely overlap.

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