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Oncogene. 2013 Jan 31;32(5):663-9. doi: 10.1038/onc.2012.67. Epub 2012 Mar 5.

Tumor development is associated with decrease of TET gene expression and 5-methylcytosine hydroxylation.

Author information

1
Molecular and Cell Biology Lab, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, PR China.

Abstract

The TET (ten-eleven translocation) family of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)-dependent dioxygenases catalyzes the sequential oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine, leading to eventual DNA demethylation. The TET2 gene is a bona fide tumor suppressor frequently mutated in leukemia, and TET enzyme activity is inhibited in IDH1/2-mutated tumors by the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate, an antagonist of α-KG, linking 5mC oxidation to cancer development. We report here that the levels of 5hmC are dramatically reduced in human breast, liver, lung, pancreatic and prostate cancers when compared with the matched surrounding normal tissues. Associated with the 5hmC decrease is the substantial reduction of the expression of all three TET genes, revealing a possible mechanism for the reduced 5hmC in cancer cells. The decrease of 5hmC was also observed during tumor development in different genetically engineered mouse models. Together, our results identify 5hmC as a biomarker whose decrease is broadly and tightly associated with tumor development.

PMID:
22391558
PMCID:
PMC3897214
DOI:
10.1038/onc.2012.67
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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