Send to

Choose Destination
J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2012 Oct;23(10):2335-47. doi: 10.1007/s10856-012-4598-2. Epub 2012 Mar 3.

Substituted hydroxyapatites for bone repair.

Author information

Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, New Museum's Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK.


Calcium phosphates such as hydroxyapatite have a wide range of applications both in bone grafts and for the coating of metallic implants, largely as a result of their chemical similarity to the mineral component of bone. However, to more accurately mirror the chemistry, various substitutions, both cationic (substituting for the calcium) and anionic (substituting for the phosphate or hydroxyl groups) have been produced. Significant research has been carried out in the field of substituted apatites and this paper aims to summarise some of the key effect of substitutions including magnesium, zinc, strontium, silicon and carbonate on physical and biological characteristics. Even small substitutions have been shown to have very significant effects on thermal stability, solubility, osteoclastic and osteoblastic response in vitro and degradation and bone regeneration in vivo.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center