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Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012 May;22(5):355-66. doi: 10.1097/FPC.0b013e3283516ff8.

Gene panels to help identify subgroups at high and low risk of coronary heart disease among those randomized to antihypertensive treatment: the GenHAT study.

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Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 55294-0022, USA.



To identify panels of genetic variants that predict treatment-related coronary heart disease (CHD) outcomes in hypertensive patients on one of four different classes of initial antihypertensive treatment. The goal was to identify subgroups of individuals on the basis of their genetic profile who benefit most from a particular treatment.


Candidate genetic variants (n=78) were genotyped in 39 114 participants from Genetics of Hypertension Associated Treatment study, ancillary to Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial. Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial randomized hypertensive participants (≥55 years) to one of four treatments (amlodipine, chlorthalidone, doxazosin, lisinopril). The primary outcome was fatal CHD or nonfatal myocardial infarction (mean follow-up=4.9 years). A pharmacogenetic panel was derived within each of the four treatment groups. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves estimated the discrimination rate between those with and without a CHD event, on the basis of the addition of the genetic panel risk score.


For each treatment group, we identified a panel of genetic variants that collectively improved the prediction of CHD to a small but statistically significant extent. Chlorthalidone (A): NOS3 rs3918226; SELE rs5361; ICAM1 rs1799969; AGT rs5051; GNAS rs7121; ROC comparison, P=0.004; Amlodipine (B): MMP1 rs1799750; Factor5 (F5) rs6025; NPPA rs5065; PDE4D rs6450512; MMP9 rs2274756; ROC comparison, P=0.006; Lisinopril (C): AGT rs5051; PON1 rs705379; MMP12 rs652438; F12 rs1801020; GP1BA rs6065; PDE4D rs27653; ROC comparison, P=0.01; Doxazosin (D): F2 rs1799963; PAI1 rs1799768; MMP7 rs11568818; AGT rs5051; ACE rs4343; MMP2 rs243865; ROC comparison, P=0.007. Each panel was tested for a pharmacogenetic effect; panels A, B, and D showed such evidence (P=0.009, 0.006, and 0.001, respectively) and panel C did not (P=0.09).


Because each panel was associated with CHD in a specific treatment group but not the others, this research provides evidence that it may be possible to use gene panel scores as a tool to better assess antihypertensive treatment choices to reduce CHD risk in hypertensive individuals.

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