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Psychiatry Res. 2012 Feb 28;201(2):128-35. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.08.004. Epub 2012 Mar 3.

Parental substance abuse and function of the motivation and behavioral inhibition systems in drug-naïve youth.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, United States. iliyan.ivanov@mssm.edu

Abstract

It is hypothesized that the development of substance abuse (SA) may be due to imbalance in functions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems in the brain. This speaks to the search for biological risk factors for SA in drug-naïve children who also exhibit motivational and inhibitory control deficits; however, this type of research is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to establish a neurobiological basis for addiction vulnerability using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in drug-naïve youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD alone would show higher activity in regions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems than children with ADHD and a parental history of SA. Toward this goal we scanned 20 drug-naïve children with ADHD ages 8-13 while performing an event-related reward task. High (N=10) and low (N=10) risk subjects were identified, based on parental history of SA. The effects of anticipation, conflict, and reward were assessed with appropriate linear contrasts, and between-group differences were assessed using statistical parametric mapping. The two groups did not differ on behavioral measures of the task. The fMRI results show heightened activation in the brain motivational-reward system and reduced activation of the inhibitory control system in high-risk compared to low-risk children. These results suggest that a functional mismatch between these two systems may represent one possible biological underpinning of SA risk, which is conferred by a parental history of addiction.

PMID:
22386967
PMCID:
PMC3335432
DOI:
10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.08.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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